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What is Synthetic Biology and Synthetic Biology Effects with Usage

Synthetic biology is the combination of biochemistry, science and engineering, in order to build biological functions and systems. it is used in present to make things more durable and reliable and to make better material as compared to natural material which does not last much longer because of its expired time. This biology can go from individual molecules to whole cells, tissues and organisms. In essence, synthetic biology will enable the design of biological systems in rational and systematic way products that are currently in use by the use of synthetic biology:

1) Naturally Replicating Rubber for Tires:

Isoprene is an important commodity chemical used in a variety of applications, including the production of synthetic rubber. Isoprene is naturally produced by nearly all living things (including humans, plants and bacteria); the metabolite dime thy leally pyrophosphate is converted into isoprene by the enzyme isoprene syntheses. But the gene encoding the isoprene syntheses enzyme has only been identified in plants such as rubber trees, making natural rubber a limited resource.

2) Delivering Economic, Renewable Bio Acrylic:

Acrylic is an important petrochemical used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products. Acrylic ingredients make paints more durable and odor-free, adhesives stronger and longer-lasting, diapers more absorbent and leak-proof, and detergents better able to clean clothes. Today, petroleum-based acrylic is an $8 billion global market.

3) Making Green Chemicals from Agricultural Waste:

Surfactants are one of the most useful and widely sold classes of chemicals, because they enable the stable blending of chemicals that do not usually remain associated (like oil and water).

Today, nearly all surfactants are manufactured from either petrochemicals or seed oils, such as palm or coconut oil. Worldwide production of surfactants from petrochemicals annually emits atmospheric carbon dioxide equivalent to combustion of 3.6 billion gallons of gasoline. Production from seed oil is greener, but there is a limit to the amount of seed oil that can be produced while protecting the rainforest.

4) Life Technologies Provides a Comprehensive Workflow for Vaccine Development:

Demand is growing in developing and developed countries around the world for cost-effective vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. But development of new vaccines is a time consuming undertaking, requiring the identification of antigens such as weakened viruses or bacteria toxins or other pathogens and the development, purification and production of immunogens that might help prevent or treat diseases. Life Technologies has a proven track record in vaccine development. It provides the molecular engineering tools and services necessary to sequence genetic information to formulate vaccines and other treatments in a more efficient and timely manner than current practices, allowing researchers to save time.

Synthetic biology enables Life Technologies to design, synthesize, test and deploy antigens and variants with rapid results, high expression and capacity. It also enables Life Technologies to develop immunogens engineered for efficacy and high titer and produce rapid assays for purification of the immunogens. Life Technologies scientists developed the custom gene constructs that serve as the basis for HIV vaccine candidates

5) Developing a Suite of Bio based Products and Services:

DSM, a Life Sciences and Materials Sciences company headquartered in the Netherlands, was one of the first companies to utilize synthetic biology, dramatically improving an existing process for commercial production of Cephalexin, a synthetic antibiotic. Starting with a penicillin-producing microbial strain, DSM introduced and optimized two enzyme-encoding genes for a one-step direct fermentation of adipoyl-7-ADCA, which could then be converted into Cephalexin via two enzymatic steps. The new process replaced a 13-step chemical process, resulting in significant cost and energy savings. DSM has gone on to build a business in antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes, organic acids, and performance materials within one of its emerging business areas called Bio based Products and Services.

6) Engineering Low-Cost Sugars for Petroleum Substitute:

Sugars from non-food biomass can be used as building blocks to manufacture a wide variety of bio fuels and renewable chemicals that are currently produced from expensive and price-volatile petroleum feed stocks. The advanced bio fuels market is estimated to grow to 21 billion gallons by 2022, based on the U.S. Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

Traditional sugar fermentation processes to produce bio fuels and renewable chemicals use either sucrose from sugarcane or starch from corn, sorghum, or wheat. Bio mass provides greater price stability for raw materials, uses less energy in producing bio fuels and renewable chemicals via fermentation and enables production with dramatically lower greenhouse gas emissions.

7) Creating Economic Advantage for a Commonly Used Chemical:

Adipic acid is a valuable chemical intermediate used in production of nylon for well-established markets like automotive parts, footwear, and construction materials. The current market for adipic acid is approximately $5.2 billion. Current petrochemical processes for the production of adipic acid generate as much as 4.0 tons of CO2 equivalents per ton of adipic acid produced. A bio based process could reduce the production costs of adipic acid by 20 percent or more.

Verdezyne is developing a cost-advantaged, environmentally friendly fermentation process for adipic acid. The company proprietary metabolic pathway can utilize sugar, plant-based oils or alkanes, and the company has completed proof-of-concept testing for fatty acids and alkanes. The potential benefit of this feedstock flexible approach is the ability to maintain a sustainable economic advantage regardless of future energy volatility and to reduce the environmental footprint for producing adipic acid.

8) Producing Bio fuels and Renewable Chemicals as Petroleum Alternatives:

Diesel is the most widely used liquid fuel in the world. This energy dense fuel supports the transport of 70 percent of U.S. commercial goods and is in high demand in the developing world to support the heavy equipment (trucks, bulldozers, trains, etc) required for infrastructure development. Today there is no cost effective renewable alternative to diesel.

9) Increasing Rates of Natural Fermentation for Polymers:

Metabolix is bringing new, clean solutions to the plastics, chemicals and energy industries based on highly differentiated technology. For 20 years, Metabolix has focused on advancing its foundation in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), a broad family of biopolymers. Through a microbial fermentation process, the base polymer PHA is produced within microbial cells and then harvested. Development work by Metabolix has led to industrial strains of the cells, which can efficiently transform natural sugars into PHA.

Synthetic Biology in future

 Significant Advancement:

A landmark of synthetic biology will launch this spring. It is an anti-malarial drug made from synthetic chemicals, artemisinin. It’s an important event for those threatened by the disease; each year, malaria kills more than one million people and infects an additional 300–500 million people. Thats over seven percent of the world’s population.

Managing the Risks:

Like many things we do, synthetic biology comes with risks, especially when it comes to safety and security. But consider this: We fly airplanes, we drive cars, and we treat cancer with poison all of these activities could be dangerous, but they also have benefits that far outweigh the risks. We believe this is true of synthetic biology as well. As Laurie Zoloth, a bioethicist at Northwestern University, once said, Synthetic biology is like iron: You can make sewing needles and you can make spears. Of course, there is going to be dual use.

Synthetic Biology in past:

1)The First Synthetic Living Thing:

Synthetic biology really hit the headlines in May 2010 when the J. Craig Venture Institute created the first entirely synthetic life form. Termed "JCVI-syn1.0", this self-replicating, single-cell organism was based on an existing Mycoplasma capricolum bacterium. However, at its core was an entirely synthetic genome constructed from 1.08 million DNA base pairs in the JCVI laboratory. JCVI even developed their own alphabetic code based on the four DNA base pair letters G, T, C and A. They then used this code to write watermarks into the DNA of their synthetic bacteria. Anybody who can crack the code is invited to use it to e-mail the JCVI scientists!

2)Building with BioBricks:

One of the most amazing things about synthetic biology is how advanced the tools and components of its trade have already become. For example, the PartsRegistry.org website now contains a free, "continuously growing collection of genetic parts that can be mixed and matched to build synthetic biology devices and systems

Author :Center for Recent Innovations - European Union
Pulished date: 05-16-16
Pulisher:
Springer with the Collaboration of LearnRnd
Source URL:http://www.learnrnd.com/detail.php?id=What_is_Synthetic_Biology_and_Synthetic_Biology_Effects_with_Usage

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