In 21 out of 41 countries with data more than one third of girls aged 15-40 years are anemic. Anemic most commonly iron- deficiency anemic increases the risk of hemorrhage in the age of 15-40 years.It causes physical deficits in young children and reduces productivity in adults age between 15-40 years.
For women aged 15-40 years, HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death world wide with unsafe sex being the main risk factor in developing countries. Biological factors lack of access to information and health services, unequal power in sexual relations expose women ,particularly young women to HIV infection.
Tuberculosis is often linked to HIV infections and is among the five leading causes of death in low income countries among women of reproductive age and young adult women aged 15-40 years.
Both self-inflicted injuries and road injuries figure among the top 10 causes of death among adult women (15-40 years) globally. In the WHO South-east region, burns are among the top 10 leading causes of death among women aged 15-40. Women suffer significantly more fire- related injuries and deaths than men, due to cooking accidents or as the result of intimate partner and family violence.
Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women aged between 15-40 years worldwide, with all cases linked to a sexually transmitted genital infection Due to poor access to screening and treatment services, more than 90% of deaths occur in women aged between 15-40 years living in low- and middle- income countries.
Violence against women is widespread around the world. Recent figures indicate that 35% of women aged 15-40 years worldwide have experienced either intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime. 42% of them have experienced injuries as a result. Increasingly in many conflicts, sexual violence is also used as a tactic of war.
Depression is the leading cause of disease burden for women aged 15-40 years in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Depression following childbirth, affects 20% of mothers in low- and lower-middle-income countries, which is even higher than previous reports from high-income countries. Every year, an estimated 800 000 people die from suicide globally, the majority being men. However, there are exceptions, for instance in China where the suicide rate in rural areas is higher among women aged 15-40 years than men. Attempted suicide, which exceeds suicide by up to 20 times, is generally more frequent among women aged 15-40 years than men and causes an unrecognized burden of disability. At the same time, attempted suicide is an important risk factor for death from suicide and shows the need for appropriate health services for this group.
Disability which affects 15% of the world population is more common among women aged 15-40 years than men. Women with age 15-40 years have disabilities have poorer health outcomes, lower education achievements, less economic participation and higher rates of poverty than women without disabilities. Adult women aged 15-40 years with disabilities are at least 1.5 times more likely to be a victim of violence than those without a disability.
Tobacco use and the burning of solid fuels for cooking are the primary risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a life-threatening lung disease in women age 15-40 years. One third of all of the COPD deaths and disease burden in women aged 15-40 years is caused by exposure to indoor smoke from cooking with open fires or inefficient stoves.
Globally, men slightly outnumber women but, as women tend to live longer than men, they represent a higher proportion of older adults: 54% of people 60 years of age and older are women aged 15-40 years, a proportion that rises to almost 60% at age 75 and older, and to 70% at age 90 and older.
Noncommunicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and cancers, are the biggest causes of death among older women, regardless of the level of economic development of the country in which they live. Cardiovascular diseases account for 46% of older women deaths globally, while a further 14% of deaths are caused by cancers mainly cancers of the lung, breast, colon and stomach. Chronic respiratory conditions, mainly COPD, cause another 9% of older women deaths.
Many of the health problems faced by women in older age are the result of exposure to risk factors in adolescence and adulthood, such as smoking and unhealthy diets.
Other health problems experienced by older women that decrease physical and cognitive functioning include poor vision (including cataracts), hearing loss, arthritis, depression and dementia. Although men also suffer from these conditions, in many countries women age 15-40 years are less likely to receive treatment or supportive aids than men.
Older women experience more disability than men, reflecting broader determinants of health such as:
Inequities in norms and policies that disadvantage women; Changing household structures; and Higher rates of unpaid or informal sector work.
These factors combine to increase vulnerabilities, and reduce access to needed and effective health services.
Hair loss is a big worry to many people, both male and female 15-40 years. If you have a worrying amount of hair in the basin after shampooing, you may think you are on the way to baldness, but this is not usually the case. The 500 to 1000 hairs that everyone loses each day often become tangled with the rest of the hair, but are washed out when we shampoo. So we see what seems like a lot of hair in the basin after shampooing, but in reality these hairs have been shed earlier.
Of course, bald areas are an obvious sign of hair loss, but otherwise it can be difficult to tell whether your hair is getting thinner. To find out, try the tug test. Hold a small bunch of hairs about 15 or 20 hairs between the thumb and index finger. Pull slowly and firmly. If more than six hairs come out there may be a problem.
The portion of the hair that we can see is called the shaft. The hair is attached to the base of the follicle by the hair root, which is where the hair actually grows and where it is nourished by tiny blood vessels.
The thickness of each hair depends on the size of the follicle from which it is growing. At puberty in boys, hormones increase the size of the follicles on the chin, chest and limbs so that each hair becomes more thick and wiry. In the elderly, the follicles shrink and the hair becomes finer.
Hair growth is not a continuous process. It has several stages. The first phase is the growing stage. Hair grows at about 1 cm each month and this phase lasts for anything between 2 and 5 years. This is followed by a resting stage, during which there is no growth. At the end of the resting phase, the hair is shed. At any moment, about 90% of the hair follicles of the scalp are growing hairs in the first phase; only about 10% are in the resting phase. If a follicle is destroyed for any reason, no new hair will grow from it.
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