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Nuclear Weapons and Cold War

Nuclear weapons use either fusion or fission or both reactions to generate explosive energy. According to newest report, total bomb nine countries possess atomic weapons. Those are:

  1. United state
  2. Russia
  3. United kingdom
  4. France
  5. China
  6. India
  7. Pakistan
  8. Israel
  9. North Korea

Out of total nuclear weapons USA and Russia have 93% of them.Nuclear weapons are the most destructive weapons on earth. Only one bomb can destroy cities, potentially killing millions of people, destroying natural environment and causing long term catastrophic effects by harmful residual rays.A number of treaties have been made to prevent nuclear proliferation and testing. Efforts have been made to promote nuclear disarmament. The weapons which use fission reaction are called atomic bombs. The weapons which use fission reaction are called thermonuclear bombs or hydrogen bombs because they use hydrogen isotopes to produce energy .In hydrogen bomb only a part of energy is released by nuclear fission. Both fission and fusion release vast amount of explosive energy from a small amount of matter. The elements used in nuclear weapons are:

  • Uranium 235
  • Plutonium 239
  • Uranium 237

First nuclear weapons used were by US against Japan near the end of wold war 2 in 1945. The first bomb was dropped in Hiroshima. The explosion from the bomb killed 80,000 people and thousands of people died later from exposure to the radiation. Three days later a second bomb was drooed on another of Japan called Nagasaki killing approximately 40,000 people. After that the emperor of Japan Hirohito surrendered by radio. The bombs were dropped by B-29 bomber. Pakistan is one of the 9 countries to have nuclear weapon, the only one among Muslim countries. Pakistan started developing nuclear weapons in response to india nuclear test. Pakistan conducted nuclear tests near Baluchistan in 1988 and became seventh to have develop and test nuclear weapons. Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto brought Abdul Qadeer Khan from Europe to help make the nuclear weapon. Nuclear weapon delivery is an important aspect of nuclear strategy. The method used to deliver the first two bombs in the history of nuclear weapons was a gravity bomb by a bomber aircraft. Other methods of delivery are:

  • By a missile
  • Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles(MIRVs)
  • Artillery shells, land mines and nuclear depth charges and torpedoes for anti-submarine warfare.

A nuclear war in which countries fight with nuclear weapons if break out will cause destruction throughout the world, possibly causing the collapse of civilization. There are 3 kinds of wars:

Cold war: Cold war is the state of political hostility between western block (USA) and eastern block (USSR) after World War 2. No actual fighting occurred because the consequences would be too dire but the countries did for their beliefs sing other means such as politics etc. The cold war continued from 1947 to 1991.

Hot war: Hot war is a war in which actual fighting occurs. It is an armed conflict between 2 countries.

Warm war: Warm war is a war in which the talks are still going on and there is a chance of peace but plans for are being made and the countries are ready to wage are a war on command.

Author :Center for Recent Innovations - European Union
Pulished date: 05-22-16
Pulisher:
Springer with the Collaboration of LearnRnd
Source URL:http://www.learnrnd.com/detail.php?id=Nuclear_Weapons_and_Cold_War

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