One of the major breakthroughs, in the field of science during the early 21st century is Human Cloning. Now, before I start let me explain the types of human cloning. Firstly, we have Therapeutic cloning which is a technique in which you come up with cures to fight awful diseases and life threatening symptoms. Secondly, there’s the very controversial Reproductive cloning which is use to make human beings out of your own DNA and a donor egg is necessary for this.
Therapeutic cloning is also referred to as 3D Bio- imprinting in which a specialized printer is used. Printed Organs has 3 main types:
- Flat : mainly skin
- Hollow : mainly organs like the gall bladder
- Vascular: vessels of the body.
1 years ago, a Swedish Research Group Organovo was successful in cloning a human liver; unfortunately it was not suitable for human transplantation but is used for testing drugs and different surgical techniques.
The breakthrough in therapeutic printing occurred when positive results came in from the Wake Forest University in Northern Caroline, where a the research team had succeed in developing a human printer, yes you heard me right – a human body printer. There works and researches where published in various news papers and scientific journals. The human printer has a very complex structure, mainly of various nozzles each of which extrudes out hydro gels – solutions of human cells in water and other biodegradable substances’ that would help the different layers of cells to adhere to one another and stay strong. The human printer has achieved the milestone of printing a human ear and small bones but these artificially created body parts are yet to be made suitable for body transplantation. The kinds of tissues that are being cloned have the tendency to make themselves suitable for the body vessels for nutrition. It has 2 types.
- Drop based Bio printing: in which the cell model upon contact with the desired medium starts replicating and this type of method is cheap and less time consuming.
- Extrusion based Bio printing: in which various layers are joined together which join together and focus on embedding the cells together. The cells join together to form tissues and the tissues join together to form organs. This process is slow but very expensive and requires advanced procedures like UV lights and photo phosphorylation.
Then we have reproductive cloning in which the body’s own DNA is used and a foreign egg is required, this technique has the controversial tendency of exploiting human nature and its foundations because it is capable of cloning complete individuals. Islam and the Catholic Church both prohibit such practices but according to confirmed reports most of the researchers are atheist – believing in no god. The very concept of cloning is acceptable in cases of life threatening diseases which require a certain part of a body or an individual organ to be transplanted but the very concept of the whole body being cloned is discarded and act of prohibition. Human cloning is prohibited for two reasons, one because the concept of couples and pairing is neglected. GOD has created us in pairs, how can or will a clone have a pair secondly it contradicts with the fundamental concept of cloning and as a result goes against Social and Moral Ethics.03-09-16
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