A corpus linguistic technique has been applied to various studies in text and discourse analysis. This study applies a corpus-driven approach in Hamlet by Shakespeare. Usingcorpus linguistictechnique, we analyzed Shakespeare play that how he invented new words. This study relies on the quantitative approach to contextual meanings.
Chapter 1: Hamlet by Shakespeare
Hamlet by Shakespeare is among the remarkable plays present in the history of English Literature. Hamlet Play is one of the famous tragic plays ever written. This play starts with poison and ends with the poison. Hamlet Play is about Hamlet, Prince of Denmark who is a son of King Hamlet and Queen Gertrude.When king Hamlet dies, Claudius brother of king Hamlet becomes the king and marries the widow of King Hamlet. Hamlet meets the ghost of his father who encourages him to take revenge for his death by killing Claudius.In a soliloquy, Hamlet expresses his anger against his mother for her hasty remarriage. Daughter of Polonius, Ophelia is in love with Hamlet but their relationship is ended soon when Hamlet learned about the death of his father.
Hamlet wants to kill king but he finds him praying. He confronts his mother and realizes that someone is behind the curtains suspecting that it might be Claudius. He draws his sword and kills the unseen Polonius.
The death of Polonius leaves its mark on Ophelia Who becomes mad from the grief of losing her father. Claudius sends Hamlet to England but he manages to come back. King Claudius explains to Laertes that Hamlet killed his father, Polonius. Deciding they have a common enemy. They plot the death of Hamlet at a fencing match to be arranged between Laertes and Hamlet. Laertes learns about the death of his sister Ophelia by drowning. Hamlet and Horatio are at the graveyard. A procession interrupts, Claudius, Gertrude, and Laertes walk toward the grave along with a priest and an entourage bearing a body.
Laertes reveals to Hamlet that the dead body is that of Ophelia. Then Hamlet declares that he loved Ophelia more than forty thousand brothers could. The King calls Hamlet and Laertes together and has them begin the fight. Hamlet asks Laertes to forgive his earlier acts of madness at the grave of Ophelia. He further claims that his madness, not he himself, is responsible for the death of Polonius, and he begs pardon for the crime. Laertes remains stiff and suspicious in his response but says he bears Hamlet no regret.The king offers Hamlet the poisoned drink, but he does not take it. The Queen drinks it and dies. Hamlet is wounded with the poisoned sword, and Hamlet wounds Laertes with the same sword. As Laertes is dying, he tells Hamlet that the king is to blame for the poisoned sword and poison in the cup. Hamlet forces Claudius to drink down the rest of the poisoned wine. Claudius dies crying out for help. Hamlet tells Horatio that he is dying and exchanges the last forgiveness with Laertes, who dies after forgiving Hamlet.When Hamlet is dying, he urges his friend not to commit suicide in light of all the tragedies, but instead to stay alive and tell his story. He says that he wishes Fortinbras to be made King of Denmark, and then he dies.
Research Questions in Hamlet Play
We applied corpus techniques to the analysis of Shakespeare Play Hamlet. The research questions the present research addresses are:
(1) What lexical patterns are characteristic of Shakespeare play Hamlet?
(2) What textual meanings do those patterns suggest?
(3) What are strengths and limitations of the corpus approach in the study of Drama?
1.2 Chapter wise breakdown of Hamlet Play
The first chapter introduces the study; highlighting the problem statement, research question and the background.
Chapter 2: The second section is the methodology and also includes tables.
Chapter 3: The third part analyses the data.
Chapter 4: The final part concludes the study highlighting the recommendations and suggestions for future studies.
Chapter 2: Methodology apply to Hamlet Play
2.1 Descriptive tools there are three corpus linguistic descriptive tools that are used in this study to explore stylistic features and their textual functions in Shakespeare play Hamlet: Keynes, Concordance, and Collocation.
2.1 Keynes Table 1: Keywords in Shakespeare play Hamlet Rank Key Words 1 King 11 Tears 2 Prince 12 Poison 3 Sword 13 Blood 4 Death 14 Murderer 5 Die 15 Tears 6 Queen 7 Kill 8 Dane 9 Tragedy 10 Revenge
2.2 Collocations Table 2: Collocations in Shakespeare play Hamlet me: If there be any good thing to be done, that may to thee do who is to be buried in? O limed soul that, struggling to be free, Art more engaged! I must be cruel, only to be kind: Thus bad begins and worse Is she to be buried in Christian burial that willfully.
Table 3: Key semantic fields in Shakespeare play Hamlet
Rank Key semantic field Sample words in the semantic field 1 Degree boosters very, so, much, too 2 Kin sister, father, mother, brother 3 Content pleasure, glad, happy 4 Respected respect, regard, esteem Table 4: Key grammatical categories in Shakespeare play Hamlet Rank Key grammatical categories Sample words in the grammatical categories 1 Degree Adverb very, so, much 2 be infinitive be 3 Modal Auxiliary could, would, might, may ,can, should 4 Third-person singular objective personal pronoun him, her 2.3 Concordance Table 5: Concordance in Shakespeare play Hamlet Rank Words No. of hits 1 Hamlet 469 2 Very 65 3 More 96 4 Claudius 120 5 King 202
Chapter 3: Discussion and Results of Shakespeare play Hamlet
The findings presented above will be discussed in detail in this particular section. The findings throw light on two important (i) Textual patterns and their relationship to meaning in Shakespeare play Hamlet and assessment of a corpus-driven approach to the study of literary texts.
Table 1 shows the setting of the play. The words king, revenge, death all show that the play is a tragic play, these words together make one similar category which indicates the tragic setting of the play.
In Table 2, collocations, used in Hamlet are listed.In the text, the phrase to be us used as a verb phrase. For example, in the first line, the phrase to be done indicates that to be is used as a verb phrase. All other examples also show the use of to be as a phrasal verb. Nevertheless, every time the word to be is used, it is used in a different context.
Table 3 shows the use of different kinds of words falls under different semantic fields in Hamlet. Like the words very, so, much, too, fall under the semantic field of degree boosters. The play contains words like the mother; father, brother, and sister that fall under semantic filed kin.
All these words show relationships that are close to each other. Similarly, the words like pleasure, glad, happy show different feelings under the semantic field of content.
Table 3 shows another category of words which are closely related to the word Respected.
Table 4 is the presentation of grammatical categories used in the play.The different grammatical categories are degree adverbs, modal auxiliary, personal pronouns etc. The words very, so, much are used as the adverbs which show the degree of the verbs.
The words could, would, might are abundantly present in the play and fall under the category of a modal auxiliary. He and she are the personal pronouns used for 3rd person singular.
Table 5 is showing the concordances in Hamlet. Some of the words selected to figure out concordances are Hamlet which appeared 469 times in the play, the word very appeared 65 times. More, Claudius, king are a few other examples which appeared 96, 120, 202 times respectively. Nevertheless, every time these words are used, they are used in different context.
Chapter 4: Conclusion
A corpus linguistic technique has been applied to Shakespeare play Hamlet. This study relies on the quantitative approach to contextual meanings. This study throws light on Textual patterns and their relationship to meaning in Shakespeare play Hamlet and assessment of a corpus-driven approach to the study of Literary Texts.
We have studied few stylistic features but there might be some gap left to be filled up but this research can provide a framework for future study.