3D printing is a name of group of technologies that layer by layer build by manufacture objects, also known as Additive manufacturing .4D printing is a novel advancement to 3D printing technology is focused on developing materials and newer printing techniques that could reduce the time taken for efficiency of the manufacturing process. Chuck Hall is co-founder of 3D system. He invented the idea of stereo lithography (3D printing).He came up on this idea when he was using UV light to harden table top coating ,He defined in Hull patent, a concentrated beam of UV is focused onto surface of vat filled with liquid photo-polymer. The light beam moving under computer controls draws each layer of the object onto surface of the liquid .Whatever the beam strikes the surface the photo-polymer polymerizes and change to solid. Skylar Tibbits is the inventor of 4D printing, He has been working in collaboration with Stratsys, an Israeli, 3D printing. In the recent years, there is improvement in construction project using 3D and 4D technologies.
3D modeling tools offers pre-defined objects that facilitate the development, routing and connection of building system in 3D and provide conflict detection mechanisms that help to automatically identify physical interference between component modeling tools link a project scope in 3D with construction schedule to graphically simulate the construction process. Mostly construction is slow process, labor intensive and inefficient, mostly hazardously job, costly and always over budget. The only solution is fundamental technology. A way of streaming the construction process by benefiting from the experiences of construction process. By utilizing CAD (computerized aid design) and CAM (computerized aid manufacturing).It is a process of designing on computer and then through production process building houses using nozzle machines, without aid of human labor. Entire neighborhood can be built at fraction of cost, fraction of time, more safety, with ultimate architecture flexibility.
The main principle behind 4D printed houses is Self-assembly, a process in which disordered parts build the ordered structure through only local interaction. For example the pipes used in houses get cracked after long time, but in 4D build houses the cracked pipes has ability to be replaced. In this self-assembly principle, materials and geometry are tightly coupled with energy sources like heat, neuamtics, and gravity and magnetic. Then need smart interactions that allow the substances to change from one position to another. It just changing world from Nano scale to human scale. The process of building 4D printed houses is that the cementious material is deposited through nozzle and building is build layer by layer. First the basic framework is made; other process will do finishing, tilling and painting. A house of nearly 25 sqfoot can be built in just 20 hours. Walls can be of any shape using any architecture features. Plumbing elements could be installed while building is erected. For electrical insulation, Polymeric blocks with conductors that carry electricity and other communication signals. Walls are hollow from inside for good heat conduction. Single nozzle machine is used for single storey house and multiple nozzle machines is used for building large building. 4d houses benefits in a manner that in extreme environments such as in deserts and in cold environment or in highly mountainous topography where construction would be challenging 4D printing will be very useful .Also for large scale infrastructure, Projects where many cranes and labor work is required. The pipes are being developed consisting of programmable materials designed to functionally change with changing environment, where the material is designing itself according to circumstances, is undeniable. Geometric configuration could be also achieved for example Roof changing facilitates drainage depending on the accumulation of precipitation. And walls that slightly increase in thickness during the winter to elevate the insulation values or ventilation ducts transform depending on the heating or cooling, required during certain seasons. Building would be changing from corners in heavy winds to protect the structure itself in real times during a hail storm. 3D and 4D printing houses would decrease the energy consumption for example consider the energy required to pour concrete walls for a large building. A concrete plant consumes an abundance of energy to turn cement, aggregate, add mixture and water to concrete.
Then trucks being used and all that. 4D printed material that build itself when external triggers were introduced, all of afore mentioned consumption will be replaced by the trigger. Now 3D design coordination process includes the steps that are, identifying the potential use of 3D Model, identify the modeling requirements, establishing the drawing protocol, establish a conflict resolution process, develop a protocol for addressing design questions, develop discipline specific 3D models, identify conflicts between components or systems, develop solutions for the conflict identified, document conflicts and solutions. 4D design construction coordination includes Establish work breakdown and flow, establish installation sequence, recognize 3D models, refine schedule, link 3D objects and activities, and refine 4D models. However, there is always a negative side of everything. So do these 3D and 4D printers have. Well I believe things can get uncomfortable, specifically with respect to architecture, is when our desires and what has been programmed collides. No assurance of Integrity of a transforming structure before and after a change or it is a like bridge where you must get off before it is activated for safety purpose. Also what would be its strength after hundreds or thousands of transformation? If a building color changes to a beautiful color u like after the change is over, building reverts back to original color then how can we retain the color we liked The projects using 3D and 4D printers are SEQUUS PROJECT and THE CAMINO MEDICAL GROUP PROJECT. Recently I Dubai, 3D build office has been completed. In China there are many apartments and houses build by using this technology. Andrey Rudenko is first to build his own small castle using 3D printers. So, 3D and 4D modeling can have significant impact on the execution of a project. The benefits of 3D and 4D modeling are well documented and include, increased productivity, elimination of field interference, increased fabrication, lee rework, fewer changes orders, fewer requests for information, less cost growth and less time from start of construction to facility turnover. This technology will minimize the risks and increase quality team work and employment chances as well as social and economic impact will be boosted
Assisted suicide, also known as physician assisted suicide, is actually doctors helping patients die or doctors helping patients commit suicide.
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